The trombone is a wind instrument with a mouthpiece of the clear brass family, with slides or valves (very little used). Its cylindrical construction gives it a brilliant sound, unlike Euphoniums or Saxhorns, which are conical in design and have a slightly more muffled sound.
Its origin is most certainly the "Buccin", used in the ancient Roman army, somewhat comparable to the Horn and Trumpet. In the Middle Ages, it was called the "Low Trumpet" in its natural form, i.e. without a slide. In the 15th century, it was very close to its current form and another name was preferred: the "Sacqueboute", whose etymology is uncertain; in old French: "sacquer et bouter", which means "to pull and push"; or an analogy of form with a homonymous weapon of war. It was used in both sacred and secular music. In England, Henry VIII's ten Sackbutts were a great success. Since the 17th century its name has become Trombone, from the Italian word "Tromba" and "one" (large Trumpet).
At the beginning of the polyphonic era, it was entrusted with the "content" (dominant or subdominant) in masses and motets. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) used four trombones in his "Orfeo". It was featured in the "Te Deum" by J. B. Lully (1632-1687), and in "Israel in Egypt" by Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759). J. B. Bach (1685-1750) called on him, especially in groups, to double the voices in his chorales. Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) seems to have ignored him and w. A. Mozart (1756-1791) used it only in his dramatic music. It was L. v. Beethoven (1770-1827) who brought it back into use in the orchestra. In 1840 Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) used three models of trombone (tenor, alto, and bass) in his "Symphonie funèbre et triomphale". Richard Wagner (1813-1883) added a double bass trombone to his works 20 years later.
He can be found in all classical, military, jazz, wind and brass bands and in all musical genres. His repertoire as a soloist has increased significantly in recent decades.
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Saxophone teacher with a Certificate of Proficiency. Conductor and composer, former school director. Member of the Saxophone Quartet of France.
Trombone teacher with a Certificate of Proficiency. Principal trombone of the Orchestre National d'Ile de France.